Joseph Lebrun dit Carrier (III) had been born on Tuesday July 18, 1820 in Saint-Henri-de-Lévis. Just like his grandfather NoŽl Lebrun dit Carrier (Junior), he had a twin sister that Joseph II and Marie-Anne Fortier named Catherine. The godfather had been Joseph Turcotte and the godmother Maria Beaudoin. Father Joseph Lacasse had baptized the duet. 1
In 1833, when he was only 13, his father bought for him a farm located on Road St-Luc in what would later become Saint-Bernard de Dorchester. We can easily suppose that Joseph III was first helped by his father to develop his property.
Then, from the age of 13 to that of his marriage at 22, he was certainly the one who, under the supervision of his father, cleared the land and built that first house, still on the farm today but having been restored to a modern look.
The lot he had received was lot number 12 in Concession Saint-Luc and had been conceded under the seigneurial rules. In other words, up to the end of the seigneurial Regime (1854) Joseph III as censitaire had many duties to fulfill. In this case, Mister Pozer required yearly (in October) one minot of wheat, or five chelins 1a for each 30 arpents of his lot on top of the 6 basic sols of rent. The censetaire must also clear at least 4 arpents of land for the first ten years (until 1843). Joseph III must also leave one big tree at each corner of his farm so one can tace back its limits in case of necessity. He was required to reside on the lot, this tells us that Joseph III had to build a house as soon as possible. He also had to bring all of his grain to his lord's mill. The road in front of his famr was also his responsability. All oaks tree, all minerals (mainly lime) and all metals remainded the property of Mr. Pozer. 1b
Joseph Lebrun dit Carrier III was farmer. At the age of 22, he married Martine (var. Mathilde) Gregoire on Tuesday January 11, 1842 in Sainte-Marie de Beauce. 2 After the publication of the three banns and after having obtained the assent of the parents of the bride, the marriage was celebrated in the presence of Father Georges Derome.
The groom is said to live in Saint-Henri-de-Lévis (Saint-Bernard does not exist yet) and presented himself under the name of Joseph Lebrun dit Carrier . He will be the last of this lineage to do so at his marriage. The carrying of the Quebec Civil Code and the federal census of 1871 who had resteint the patronym to only one name made compulsary the choice between Lebrun and Carrier. Thus, his son Ferdinand will not proclaim any more his almost original name (de Bresme deformed in Lebrun). Joseph III for this "special occasions" was accompanied by his father Joseph Lebrun dit Carrier II. On this date Marie-Anne Fortier, mother of the groom, was already dead.
Martine/Marthilde was under age. She was 19 years old, 3 and had lived in Sainte-Marie de Beauce for eleven years. 4 She was the daughter of François Gregoire and Marie-Charlotte Rhéaume. Her father accompanied her to the altar. The couple did not write a marriage contract and stated not knowing to sign. 5
On June 27, 1842 a petition of 99 "signatories" was sent to the bishop of the diocese by the residents of Saint-Bernard. Joseph III was certainly one of the 99 to trace his "X" in support of the proposed place for the construction of the church located in his concession road, the Saint-Luc road at Nicolas Baillargeon place, close to the lake. It was however the site of Saint-Georges road at Pierre Turgeon that was retained. 6
At the fall of 1844, Joseph III lost his father. He died on November 28, at the age of 72 and was burried in Saint-Henri-de-Lévis.In 1849, Joseph III bought a mare from Louis-François-Xavier Vaillancourt. The colors of the animal are white and yellow and cost him 15 louis payable in three yearly installments. 6a By comparaison, at that time, a teacher was paid 6 louis a year. In order to guarantee his purchase, our ancestor had to put at stake his farm including the stable and the barn. The seller on his side gave no warranty at all. Joseph III made all three payments since he was able to bequeath intact his property 19 years later to his oldest son Romuald. This legal document told us who was living next to him: On the north west: Jacques Rhéaume and on south east: Edmond Goulet . It also tells us that on that day Joseph III had already built a barn and a stable next to his house.
We know by the birth of Ferdinand that in 1851, Joseph Lebrun dit Carrier III was living in Saint-Bernard, county of Dorchester and that he was still farming there. 7 On that year, he was listed under the name of Joseph Carrier on the federal census.
In early 1851, Joseph III and Mathilde decided to make their wills. Less than a month after the birth of Ferdinand, on the evening of February 18, notary Pierre Plante went to their home, in the cold and darkness of winter to answer their fear of the futur. 7a "Considering the certainty of death and the uncertainty of its hour, and not wanting to quit without having organized their temporal belongings" our ancestors worded their wills. Those wills were essentialy mutual donations in case of premature death. Based on their age at their marriage, Joseph III was only 31 and Mathilde 3 years yonger but they already had 5 young children. After having commended their soul to God, they required a religious service at their death and one anniversary ceremony one year later and demanded for 12 Requiem low masses for each of them. They next made reserve for any money they might have owned or any damage they might have done to someone and made a provision to give 5 piastres in money having legal tender in the province of Lower Canada (Quebec) for each of their children. Jean-Baptiste Rancourt and Louis Julien Demers enlighted only by candels signed as witnesses on those memorable documents. Joseph III and Mathilde made their crosses on the bottom of the page at 8 p.m. and 9 p.m. respectivly.
In 1861, Joseph III was listed with his family in Saint-Bernard. 8 He continued to exert the trade of farmer. He was 41 years old. Mathilde Gregoire 9 his wife was 37. They had have 10 children to that date:
1- Joseph-Romuald born in 1845
and who will marry on July 28, 1868 Marie-Anastasie Bilodeau in
Saint-Bernard. Testament: Mai 21, 1877, Pierre Plante, notary.
Children: Marie-Désilda, Joseph, Lumina, Louis (maried Septembre 3, 1897 at St-Narcisse, PQ, to Metheldic Samson), Stanislas (maried August 24, 1908 at Lewiston, Maine, USA, to Cordelia Vaillancourt) Hermenegilde (maried June 3, 1907 at Lewiston, Maine, USA, to Azilda Vaillancourt), Georges (maried Novembre 14, 1899 at Bedford, Maine, USA, to Fedora Boulet), Romela (maried 17 June 17, 1901 at Somerworth, Maine, USA, to Adelard Lemelin) et Virginie 11
2- Elzéar born in 1846 and who will marry in first wedding, on July 9, 1867, Nathalie Doyon in Saint-Frédéric and in second wedding, on January 17, 1871, Céline Gagné in Saint-Bernard.
Children of the second marriage: Clara, Amanda, Felix and Alice .
3- Genevieve born in 1847 and who will marry Pierre Racine on January 18, 1870 in Saint-Bernard.
4- Sifroid born in 1859 and who will marry Marie-Damasille Octeau on July 7, 1874 in Saint-Bernard. In 1861, he was 12 years old and was going to school.
5- Ferdinand born in 1851 and who will marry, firstly, Marie-Eugenie Vachon on August 21, 1876 in Saint-Frédéric, secondly, Marie-Odile Boulet on May 8, 1882 in Saint-Frédéric and thirdly, Marie-Cecile Morin on April 21, 1903 in Saint-Henri-de-Lévis.
Children of the first marriage: Albertine, Denise and Mélina .
Children of the second marriage: Ovide, Marie, Arthur and Aimé .
No child for the third marriage.
6- Marie-Célina born in 1854 and who will marry Pierre-O. Giguère on February 2, 1880 in Saint-Honore de Shenley. In 1861, Marie-Célina was 7 years old and going to school.
7- Gregoire born in 1855. In 1861 he was 6 years old and going to school.
8- George born in 1856 in Saint-Frédéric. In 1861, he was 5 years old and not yet attending school.
9- Séraphine born in 1858 and who will marry Joseph Morin on July 2, 1889 in Saint-Honore. She was teaching in Saint-Bernard in 1887 and 1888. She was the first to teach at school No 10, on Saint-Pierre road.
10- Pierre born in 1861 and who will marry Marie-Adele Goulet on July 20, 1886 in Saint-Bernard.
Children: Octave, Délima, Alice, Emile, Fortunat, J-Aurèle and …velina .
Joseph III did not know to read nor to write. Mathilde on her side could read and write. 12 the Carrier family lived in the one story wooden house 13 located on Saint-Luc Road, (see the house here before and the map of Saint-Bernard). Joseph Carrier III had a lot of 90 acres of which 60 were in culture. 34 3/4 of these 60 acres were productive in 1860. 25 acres were in pasture, 1/4 were used for gardening, 30 were in forest or uncultivated. The cash value of the lot was estimated to 1 500,00$ and that of his machinery to 10,00$.
The output of his cultures was as follows: barley: 1/4 acre for 3 minots, rye: 1/4 acre for 5 minots, pea: 1 1/2 acre for 10 minots, oats: 15 per 250, sarazin: 4 per 52, potatoes: 1 per 50. On that year, he had harvested 400 sixteen-pound stooks of hay.
We then see that he does not harvest his hay in bulk but binds by hand, a long and tiresome work to which young boys must take part. The family of Joseph Carrier III also winnowed 3/4 minot of clover seed, hay or others.
In 1860, they also produced 50 pounds of hemp, 6 pounds of wool, 100 pounds of maple sugar, 15 yards of pressed fabric and 38 yards of linen. Joseph Carrier III had 2 oxen, 2 cows, 2 heifers, 5 sheep and 2 pigs but no horse. The value of his cattle is estimated at 128,00$. He also had in his possession a barrel of bacon weighting 200 pounds. The product of his garden was estimated at 10,00$ by notary Pierre Plante census taker.
On the Sunday of Sexagesimn of 1867, February 17, 14 Father Joseph Bourrassa from Saint-Bernard recommended to the generosity of his parishioners …tienne Bilodeau who had lost his house in a fire and "who was about to be well off". He wanted to rebuilt his house and the house that he was meanwhile living in belonged "to Mr Carrier". 15 Chances are that Mr Carrier was Joseph Carrier III . There were only two Carrier families in the parish, the other being that of Philippe Carrier 26 years old. Moreover, Romuald would marry, the following year, someone from the Bilodeau family.
Another interesting detail is mentioned in the historical booklet on Saint-Bernard concerning Louis Carrier . It could be Louis Carrier son of Jean Carrier and Ursule Beaudoin and nephew of Joseph III . 16 Louis Carrier's work was to handle beams at the sawmill of Saint-Romuald. Valiant and sparing, he had taken the practice to work barefoot and even to return home in Saint-Bernard, also barefoot. Occasionnaly, he brought back a bag of flour on his shoulder. The lower parts of his feet had quickly become horny. One day, he wanted to benefit from this advantage and sew up with babiche two soles to the horn of his feet. He quickly realised that he had made a serious mistake, because the soles were torn off and the horn of of feet suffered such a damage, that he was well annoyed by that for some time. 17
In the summer of 1868, Joseph III decided to retire even though he was only 48. So, on July 25th he had a deed of donation written for his wife and himself in favor of his oldest son Romuald. 17aThis developped document tells us what was important to our ancestors and how they lived. First we learned who were living next to them: on the north side, Augustin Baein (Bain) and on the south side, Edouard Goulet . The donation included the land, the house, the stable and a team of beefs, 4 dairy cows, a one year old veal, 13 sheeps, 2 one year old pigs, 3 pigs born at spring, 7 hens and all farming equipments. All furnitures except two beds for their own use are also part of the donation.The donators also excluded their clothes, shoes and headgear. This donation came with an exhaustive list of duties that the receiver must meet. The seigneurial regime has been officialy abolish in 1854 (14 years before this donation) but notary Plante still included the obligation to pay Lord Pozer a seigneurial rent. Romuald had the obligation to "feed as himself at his own table", bed, light, dress and maintain his father and mother until they die, to carry them to the church each sunday and at each religious obligation days (numerous in those days), to get the priest and the doctor in case of illness "the way a tender and respectfull child must do toward his parents". He must provide them with a "good" horse or mare with the carriage and harness that the parents could use at their will except in plowing, seeding or harvesting times. In case of emergency, Romuald must at their demand, harness the horse and drive it himself. He nust provide them with a room of acceptable size equiped with a good "fire well" (fireplace).
The annual alimony shall include:710 mesures (hand shovel) of wheat , one and a half minot of peas, one fat pig weighting at least 200 pounds, one lamb, 15 minots of potatoes, 20 pounds of maple sugar, 2 pounds of tea, 10 dozens of eggs, one pot of good gin, one quarter of a drum of herring, 4 pounds of mandettes 4 pounds of soap, 40 blue stones and the same quantity of landry starch, half a minot of salt, one pound of pepper, 6 pounds of smoking tobaco, one pot of molasse and half a paper of clothes pins. As for clothing, Romuald must yearly, provide his father with: 2 shirts made of flannel, two pairs of long johns, one pair of pants made of shrinked fabric. and two pairs of boots with shin pads (jambières ). Every third year, one blouse and one double-brested jacket. Every second year, one clean hat from the store, one pair of leather shoes, one pocket muff and one pair of mitts from the store. Every fourth year, a fur hat and one cotton shirt. Only once, a silk shawl.
For his mother, each year: one skirt, one moulinot and one blue apron made of flannel, two pairs of polished leather shoes, one yard of indienne and one yard of "sheating". Every second year, one pair of gloves made of cotton, one pair of gloves made of wool, bought from the store, needles as needed, one cul (what was left on the roll) of broadcloth, one large shawl from the store, one apron made of cotton, one pair of french shoes and one pocket muff.
For the couple, Romuald must provide two squares in the family garden that the couple must hoe the weeds out and cultivate properly. Romuald on his part shall fence the garden in order to prevent his animals from going in. He must provide them with and feed one cow and one ewe which must be replaced in case of seath or if they fail to give birth each spring. Concerning the annual alimony, the amount would be reduced by half if one of the parents die except for the candel and the use of the horse. This alimony includes to knead and bake the bread, washing and repairing their clothes, sheats and straw mattress. Even the cleaning of their windows and floor is specified.
The oldest son also took the responsability to provide his parents with a convenient burrial, to have them a commun, chanted (in gregorian) funeral ceremony in addition to four low masses, also chanted, for the salvation of their soul. He must provide board and lodging, heat and dress his brothers and sisters until they reach the age of 18. The latter would have to to work for their brother according to their capacity, healt and strenth. Romuald must also make provision for each of his sisters (Geneviève, Marie and Séraphine) of one cow and a large bed for the day they would attain their majority. For each of his brothers (Siffroi, Ferdinand, Grégoire, George and Pierre), one ewe the day they would, either quit home or reach their majority. The act is closed by the marks of Joseph Lebrun dit Carrier III, Mathilde Grégoire and Romuald and by the signatures of witnesses Louis Julien Demers and Augustin Tanguay , both farmers from Saint-Bernard.
In 1871, Joseph Carrier III was again listed by the census taker. 18 He was still living in Saint-Bernard. His elder son Romuald which married Anastasie Bilodeau, has taken charge of the houshold since he was indicated as head of family. 19 Joseph III and " Martine" (Mathilde) were then living next door. 20 Romuald and Anastasie have had two children: Dasilda 2 years old and Joseph 9 months. 21 Sifroid, Ferdinand, Marie, Gregoire, George, Séraphine and Pierre were living at Romuald's place.
In 1874,on the eight Sunday after the Whit Sunday, 22 Father Bourrassa called his parishioners to order: "Mister Carrier, inspector of schools, makes you inform that, if this year, the schools in each district are not in operation, he will be obliged to submit a report to the government which will impose you the contribution". 23 This "Mister Carrier" had good chances to be Joseph Carrier III or his son Romuald. We shall not forget that in 1887 and 1888, Séraphine Carrier would be the teacher. She would be the second to occupy this position in the history of Saint-Bernard, after Lady Champagne . 24
In 1876, Joseph III did not attend the marriage of his son Ferdinand. But he was not deceased, nor his wife Martine. At the census of 1881 25 we find them in the same house where Romuald was listed at the top of the list. Joseph III and Martine were surrounded by five more grandchildren as compared to 1871 : ( Louis, Lumina, George, Virginia and Palmana ). They were living between farmers Augustin Doyon and François Rhéaume .
|1||Taken from the register of baptisms of Saint-Henri-de-Lévis for the year 1820.|
|1a||Or shilling. This word has been used from 1776, as synonymous for any money not from England.(ref. Oxford dictionary)|
|1b||Concession a titre de cens et rente de la terre no. 12, concession Saint-Luc, seigneurie Saint-Etienne from George Pozer to Joseph Lebrun dit Carrier II (for his son Joseph III) Novembre 19, 1833, J. J. Reny, notary, paper no. 661.|
|2|| Taken from the register of marriages of Sainte-Marie de Beauce for the year 1842.|
|3||His age, based on the census of 1861 (Roll c-1278, page 143, folio
No 17) can vary one year depending if his birthday were before or after
|4||She had been listed in Sainte-Marie de Beauce in 1831. Public Archives of Canada. Census of Lower-Canada, 1831.|
|5|| At the census of 1861, Martine would say that she can read and write.|
|6|| Taken from BROCHURE SOUVENIR DE SAINT-BERNARD DE DORCHESTER,
|6a|| Obligationde Louis-Joseph Carier à Louis-François-Xavier Vaillancourt , November 26, 1848. Pierre Plante, notary, paper no. 183.
|7|| Taken from the register of the baptisms of the parish of Saint-Bernard
de Dorchester for the year 1851.|
|7a|| Testament de Louis Joseph Carrier , February 18, 1851, by notary Pierre Plante, paper no. 311 and Testament de Mathilde Grégoire épouse de Louis Joseph Carrier , paper no. 312.|
|8|| Public Archives of Canada, CANADA EAST CENSUS 1861 CAMPTON CO &
DORCHESTER CO Roll c-1278, folio 17, p. 143. |
|9|| At this census, the wife of Joseph III is called Mathilde whereas
on her marriage she was called Martine. At the baptism of Ferdinand and
for her testament, she will also be called Mathilde. |
|10|| The years of birth of Joseph III children are based on the census of
|11|| Brother …loi-Gerard Talbot, RECEUIL DE GENEALOGIE DES COMTES DE BEAUCE-DORCHESTER-FRONTENAC, vol. 2, p. 270-271.|
|12|| At the census of 1871. Public Archives of Canada, CENSUS OF 1871, Roll No C 689, p. 4 (division No 3).|
|13|| Public Archives of Canada, CANADA EAST CENSUS 1861 CAMPTON CO &
DORCHESTER CO, Roll c-1278, folio 17, p. 358.|
|14|| For 1867, the Sunday preceding 60 days before Easter, was on February 17. |
|15|| BROCHURE SOUVENIR DE SAINT-BERNARD DE DORCHESTER, 1945, p. 25.|
|16|| Jean and Joseph III were brothers.|
|17|| BROCHURE SOUVENIR DE SAINT-BERNARD DE DORCHESTER, 1945, p. 68.|
|17a|| Donation entre vifs, de Sr Joseph Lebrun dit Carier (III) et épouse à Romuald Lebrun dit Carrier leur fils July 25, 1868, Pierre Plante notary, paper no. 2893. |
|18|| Public Archives of Canada, CENSUS OF 1871, Roll No. C-689, p.
4.District No 159, western Dorchester, under-district (A) St-Bernard,
division No 1. Enumerator: François Gregoire. |
|19|| The 11 th house in the order of visit of the enumerator,
that is after that of Rhéaume and before that of Joseph III.|
|20|| The 12 th house was the one between Romuald Carrier and
|21|| "Born in February". The census in St-Bernard thus takes place in the
fall of 1871.|
|22|| May 25.|
|23|| BROCHURE SOUVENIR DE SAINT-BERNARD DE DORCHESTER, 1945, p. 35. |
|24|| Idem p. 85.|
|25|| Public Archives of Canada, CENSUS OF 1881, microfilm roll No c13193,
Quebec, 47-Dorchester A- Saint-Bernard, page 3.|
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